Run a large language models locally (3) - Enabling the Model to Use Tools Autonomously

This article is the third in a series on running large language models (LLMs) locally. In the previous two articles, we introduced how to run Ollama locally and how to fine-tune the model’s answers by providing an external database. This article will continue to explore how to use the function-calling feature to extend the model’s capabilities and make it go further on the road to “intelligence”. Function-calling According to the OpenAI official documentation, function-calling is a way for large language models to connect to external tools....

2024-03-07 · caol64

Run a large language models locally (2) - Providing an External Knowledge Base to the Model

In the previous article, we demonstrated how to run large language models (LLMs) locally using Ollama. This article focuses on enhancing LLM accuracy by allowing them to retrieve custom data from external knowledge bases, making them appear “smarter.” This article involves the concepts of LangChain and RAG, which will not be explained in detail here. Prepare the Model Visit Ollama’s model page, search for qwen, and this time we will...

2024-03-04 · caol64

Run a large language models locally

With the rise of ChatGPT, LLMs (Large Language Models) have become a hot topic in the field of artificial intelligence and natural language processing. In this article, I will walk you through the process of running a large language model on your own personal computer. Pros and Cons There are many advantages to running a large language model locally: Privacy protection No expensive costs Ignore network problems Try out various open source models I think the first two advantages are enough for everyone to try....

2024-02-27 · caol64

"ps2mc-browser" Shader Code Analysis

How do we render the vertices and textures of polygons into a colorful scene? This is where OpenGL shaders come into play. Today, we’ll discuss the shaders of ps2mc-browser. To briefly introduce, ps2mc-browser is a PS2 memory card viewer capable of parsing vertex and texture data from 3D icons within PS2 memory card files and rendering them using OpenGL. In the following content, I’ll dissect the six OpenGL shaders used...

2023-12-20 · caol64

PS2 Texture Image Encoding Algorithm "A1B5G5R5"

In the previous article, we discussed the RLE image compression algorithm used in PS2. This time, let’s delve into its texture mapping encoding algorithm—A1B5G5R5. Introduction For textures, common image encoding formats like jpg or png are not suitable. This is because images are read and rendered by the GPU. You wouldn’t want to send a jpg image over and have the GPU decode the entire image just to read one pixel, right?...

2023-10-20 · caol64

The Application of the RLE Algorithm in PS2

Introduction to RLE Algorithm The RLE (Run Length Encoding) algorithm is a compression method that represents file content in the form of “number of repetitions x data.” For example: given the data AAAAAABBCDDEEEEEF, by appending the number of consecutive occurrences after each character, it can be represented as 6A2B1C2D5E1F. It can be observed that the original data is 17 bytes, while the encoded data is 12 bytes, thus achieving successful...

2023-10-16 · caol64

Rendering PS2 Savegame 3D Icons using Python and OpenGL

After a series of previous articles laying the groundwork, the files for PS2 savegame 3D icons have all been parsed. In this article, we will begin to explore how to render the 3D icons using the following tools, aiming to achieve a rendering as close as possible to the original effect on the PS2 console. Python3 PyGame Numpy ModernGL PyGLM 01 Initialize PyGame and ModernGL The first step is to initialize PyGame, setting the window size to 640x480 and the FPS to 60....

2023-10-09 · caol64

Analysis of the PS2 Game Save 3D Icons

Seeing this image, it shouldn’t be unfamiliar to seasoned players familiar with PS2. It’s the 3D icon of a game save file from the PS2 memory card management interface. In this article, we will introduce how to extract the character model from the save file. 01 Parsing Objectives A: What can we parse from the save file? All vertices and normals of the icon model Animation frames of the icon model Lighting information Textures and texture coordinates Background color and transparency B: What do we need to do?...

2023-10-04 · caol64

Exporting Save Files From a PS2 Memory Card

In the previous article, we analyzed the file system of the PS2 memory card. This time, we’ll dive straight into practice and write Python code to export specific game saves. The complete code for this article can be found at: ps2mc-browser. 01 Parsing the SuperBlock The structure of the SuperBlock is as follows, with a size of 340 bytes: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 struct SuperBlock { char magic[28]; char version[12]; uint16 page_size; uint16 pages_per_cluster; uint16 pages_per_block; uint16 unknown; // ignore uint32 clusters_per_card; uint32 alloc_offset; uint32 alloc_end; uint32 rootdir_cluster; uint32 backup_block1; // ignore uint32 backup_block2; // ignore uint32 unknown[2]; // ignore uint32 ifc_list[32]; uint32 bad_block_list[32]; // ignore byte card_type; byte card_flags; byte unknown; // ignore byte unknown; // ignore }; Use struct....

2023-09-29 · caol64

Analysis of the PS2 Memory Card Storage Format

01 Preface As an 80s gamer, the PS2 game console has always held a special place in my heart. Over 20 years have passed, yet recently, due to the emulator, I rediscovered it. After revisiting games for a while, I had a sudden idea: could I recall my younger self with my current knowledge? So, I began creating this series of articles, starting with analyzing the file system of the...

2023-09-26 · caol64